VI tutorial for beginners
 

Overview and main commands

Overview and main commands

There are so many text editors on *nix systems, but VI is surely the most widespread. VI stands for VIsual editor and VIM is an improved version of VI. You can find VI in any Linux distribution, in Unix and Mac Os X systems. For this reason you have to learn it. VIM is a textual editor, so you have not all bells and whistles that are so common with graphical text editors. Anyway VIM is a very powerful text editor. There are three modes in VI:

1) command mode
2) row editing mode
3) input mode

To run VI, open a Terminal window and type 'vi something'. As soon as you entered VI, you are in command mode. To enter row editing mode, just press the ':' key. To enter input mode press 'i' or 'a'. Let's see a simple editing session:

1) vi myfile (you are creating the myfile file)
2) press 'a' to enter input mode and type 'this is a simple text file'
3) now press ':' to enter row editing mode and type 'w!' (this will write the file and close VI)

You can move from input mode to command mode or from row editing mode to command mode by pressing the Esc key.

Main command mode commands

  • w -> go to the beginning of the next word
  • b -> go to the beginning of the previous word
  • e -> go to the end of the next word
  • n| -> go to the 'n' columns of the current row
  • $ -> go to the end of the current row
  • ^ -> go to the first character of the current row
  • G -> go to the end of the file
  • gg -> go to the beginning of the file
  • Gn -> go to 'n' row of the file
  • i -> insert mode (before the cursor)
  • a -> insert mode (after the cursor)
  • o -> insert mode (under the current row)
  • x -> delete one character
  • nx -> delete 'n' characters
  • dd -> delete the whole row
  • ndd -> delete 'n' rows
  • yy -> copy the current row
  • p -> paste the copied row
  • Rmystring -> replace next characters with the string 'mystring'
  • /string -> find the next string 'string'
  • ?string -> find the string 'string' backwards
  • n -> repeat the search again
  • u -> undo the last command

Main row editing mode commands

  • :w -> write the file
  • :w myfile -> write the file as 'myfile'
  • :q -> quit the file
  • :wq -> write and quit the file
  • :q! -> quit without saving the file
  • :help -> open the help file (:q to return editing the file)
  • :help topic -> open the help file showing the subject 'topic' (:q to return editing the file)
  • :rs/string1/string2/options -> replace string1 with string2 withing the 'r' range; options may be: g (replace all), c (ask before any replacement)
  • :set number -> set rows numbering
You can learn more commands (there are so many commands) with the :help command. Of course you can also use the 'man vi' command. The best way to learn vi is start using it.
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